Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)


The main cause of COPD is smoking.

Other causes include:

  • Second-hand smoke
  • Air pollution (dust or chemicals)
  • Repeated lung infections during childhood
  • Severe asthma
  • Asthma combined with smoking
  • A rare genetic disorder called Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency


1. WHO COPD Key facts…-(copd)
2. Neil Barnes et al; COPD and exacerbations: Patient insights. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013
3. Burudpakee et al; Pulm Ther 2017 DOI: 10.1007/s41030-017-0027-5
4.… disease/overview/lifestyle-management/bring-up-mucus